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After 1695, seven senior interpreters under the leadership of a 'metsuke' formed a College of Head Interpreters. These eight persons signed and stamped the engrossments and translations of nearly all documents that were exchanged between the Dutch and the Japanese authorities.Apart from these "Gouverneurs, banjozen, burgemeesters, opper- en ondertolken, ottenaas, ende dwarskijckers" the Dutch had to deal with the purveyors of the victuals for the factory All contact with Japanese officials must be maintained through the interpreters.In 1790, the Director-General of the trade, Johannes Siberg, succeeded in obtaining approval for a longer stay.The Council of the factory consisted of the Opperhoofd, the second merchants and the undermerchants.In accordance with the Dutch-English treaty of June 2nd, 1619, coöperation existed between the two factories, wich is manifested in the archive by resolutions of the combined ship's Councils and both Chiefs. The much-used term 'trade-passport' for these documents is thus - strictly taken - incorrect. The Shogun believed that the existing order in Japan was endangered by the expanding Christian religion.Although the Shogun in 1617 restricted the overseas trade to the harbours of Nagasaki and Hirado, the Dutch received a new act of safe-conduct on their journey to the Shogunal Court of that year, wich passport guaranteed them free entrance in all Japanese ports. After the revolt of Japanese Christians on the promontory of Shimabara (east of Nagasaki) in 16 the Portuguese were duly expelled from the Empire (1639), the Dutch had to demolish their newly-built wharehouse on Hirado (1640) and in 1641 the removal of the factory to Deshima was ordered.The Dutch factory remained here until theclosing-down in 1860. of Japan were involved in a struggle for power, from which in 1600 Ieyasu, of the House of Tokugawa, emerged victorious after the battle of Sekigahara.

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Together with the Chinese, the Dutch provided for the overseas trade of Japan, because in 1636 the Shogun finally forbade the Japanese to go abroad, after a series of restricting measures in the years 1633-1636. He did not have any governing power but must be seen as a symbol of the continuity of the Shinto-religion. The Tenno they called "Geestelijcke Keyser" ("Clerical Emperor") or 'Dairi'. The most important government council was the Go Roju or Council of Five Elders (Dutch; "Ordinaire Rijksraad"), with 4 or 5 members.

The Portuguese had been confined on this artificially constructed islet in the harbour of Nagisaki from 1636 to 1639.

It was built in 16 through the contributions of 25 local merchants. A short time after the establishment, in August 1641, the Chief of the factory received a letter from the Governor of Nagasaki, in which were promulgated a number of very onerous regulations and restrictions concerning the residence of the Dutch on the island.

The majority of the Company's servants thus acquired only a scanty knowledge of the Japanese language, wich was further impeded on the part of the Opperhoofden by their annual change in office.

Moreover, the Bakufu generally thwarted the efforts of Dutch and Japanese alike to establish a closer contact outside the commercial sphere.The relation between the Emperor and the Shogun can be compared more or less with that between the Merovingian King and his Majordomus. The other cities and the rest of the country were governed by officials, arising from the daimyo class.



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